Light alloy die casting processes explained

While the ability to reduce physical weight has been a key driver behind increased demand for aluminium and other light alloy parts in recent years – properties including electrical and thermal conductivity, mechanical strength, corrosion and resistance are also attracting the attention of manufacturers in a multitude of industries.

Due to this unique range of characteristics, light metal can be used to cast complex, safety-critical components in automotive, electronics and aerospace. It also offers a cost-effective production option for simple parts from lighting components to kitchen tools.

To produce light alloy castings, three of the most common technologies are: high pressure die casting, gravity die casting and low pressure die casting. Each technology can support permanent casting process with gravity and low pressure also able to support semi-permanent casting processes.

In a permanent process, the metal die (mould) is re-usable. In a semi-permanent casting process, the metal die also incorporates one or more sand cores that will form internal passages within the final casting.

The main advantage of both permanent and semi-permanent casting is the suitability for process automation and large-scale production, making the techniques popular with high volume manufacturers.

Depending on the application, alloy part specifications can vary widely, from geometric complexity and wall thickness to metal density and strength. All of these, along with production speed and cost per item, determine which combination of casting technology and process foundries choose.

What is high pressure die casting, gravity die casting and low pressure die casting?

What is high pressure die casting (HPDC)?

In a high pressure die casting process, molten metal or metal alloy is injected at high speed and high pressure into the mould. This process delivers light alloy parts with high precision, superior surface finish, excellent uniformity and optimum mechanical properties.

What is gravity die casting (GDC)?

In gravity die casting, the molten metal is poured directly from a ladle into a semi-permanent or permanent die. Gravity die casting technology can produce dense, high quality castings with excellent mechanical attributes.

What is low pressure die casting (LPDC)?

In low pressure die casting, the die is filled with metal from a pressurised crucible, with pressures typically around 0.7 bar. This process was created for the production of axially symmetrical parts such as car wheels. We also call this type by Counter Pressure Casting (CPC).

Browse our die casting solutions below:

High pressure die casting machines

Choose from the range of Two Platen Toggle Free Machines for a flexible casting production and Three Platen Machines with Toggle for rigid and reliable performance.

Automated die casting cells

Automatic work cells that integrate all peripheral devices, from the furnace to automatic deburring.

Gravity die casting machines and cells

Integrated solutions for the gravity foundry, with complete flexibility and customization, from design to technical support during production.

Low pressure die casting machines

Low-pressure die casting machines for the production of complex automotive castings.

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